Прошлое и настоящее города Советска

Материалы студенческой научно-практической  конференции 18  апреля 2012 года по итогам кружковой работы 2011-2012 уч. года

Л.П. Склярова – заслуженный учитель РФ, методист УМО Калининградский морской рыбопромышленный колледж «КМРК»

Игнатьев  Сергей
Вавулин  Игорь
Руководитель:     С.П. Филимонова

Прошлое  и настоящее города Советска 

 History of  Sovetsk  (Tilsit).

Sovetsk before 1946 known as Tilsit in east Prussia is a town in Kaliningrad region, located on the south bank of the Neman river. The population of it is 42000 people.
Tilsit which received civil rights in 1552 grew up around a castle of the Teutonic Knights founded  in 1288. Here in July 1807 the Treaties of Tilsit were signed between the emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon I of France. This treaty completed Napoleon’s humiliation of the kingdom of Prussia when he was  deprived of one half of his dominions.
This short-lived peace-treaty is also remarkable for quite another reason. Three days before its signing Prussian queen Louise (1776-1810) tried to pesuade Napoleon in a private conversation to ease his hard conditions on Prussia. Although without  any result, Louise’s effort greatly  endeared her to the Prussian people.
During the 19th century when the Lithuanian language was banned within the Russian Empire Tilsit was an important center for printing Lithuanian books. In general  Tilsit thrived and was an important Russian town, because of smuggled Lithuanian books. In 1900 the first electric tramway appeared in Tilsit, a direct railway line linked it to Konigsberg and  Labiau  and streamers docked the daily. The Act of Tilsit was signed here by
the leaders of the Lietuvininks in 1918.
During the time Nazi Germany Tilsit was a military town. Adolf Hitler visited it just before the Word War II.
Tilsit was occupied  by the Red Army on January 20, 1945 and it was annexed to the Soviet Union in 1945. The remaining Germans who had not evacuated were expelled and replaced with Soviet people. The town was renamed to Sovetsk  in 1945.
Modern Sovetsk tried to continue the best traditions of Tilsit, it concerns  the rich traditions of cheese production. (Tilsit  Cheese)
Tilsit theatre has a world-wide fame. It was opened in 1893. The theatre goers came here to see plays staged here. The first play was «Edmond» by  Gerse. During the Word War II the theatre was closed and opened again in 1956. Now the theatre is well known in our region.
A lot of outstanding citizens lived in Tilsit: MaX fon Shenkendorf (1783-1817, a poet), Johanna Wolff (1856-1943, a writer), John Kay  — a famous pop singer. Here is a poem by Max fon  Shenkendorf written when East Prussia struggled against French Dominion.
Песня верности.
Пусть верность всех покинет, останусь верным   я.
Боец твой не отринет, тебя моя земля.
С камрадами младыми, с друзьями лучших лет,
Не предадим святыни, такой у нас обет.
Гремели битвы в прошлом, и новые грядут,
Будь друг мой осторожен,  ведь дьявол тут – как — тут.
И времени нет краше, нас  не сломить судьбе,
Мы преданы всей нашей возвышенной мечте.
Зову светило неба, в свидетели свои
И,  если братья немы, другим богам верны.
Я слова не нарушу, отчизны не предам,
Я силы все и душу Германии отдам.

Johanna Wolf was born on January 30 1858 in Tilsit, died in 1943. Young Johanna was orphaned at age of 7. She studied  at a nursery school and worked as a Red Cross Sister in Venna with poetress Agnes Miegel. She was an important  figure of East Prussian women»s  literature. She was influenced by the works of Friederick  Niedshe,  Richard Dehmel. Her first book  was published in 1896. She was  a honorary  citiezen  of Tilsit. John Kay was born in Tilsit on April  12 1944. He is a singer song  writer and gitarist.  In 1945 his mother and a boy ran to the West of Germany in Hanover and then they moved  to Canada. Here Kay joined a rock and folk music group known as «Sparrows» in 1965. He  created  hard rock  and  heavy  metal.



Материалы студенческой научно-практической  конференции

18  апреля 2012 года

по итогам кружковой работы 2011-2012 учебного года

Настоящий сборник подготовлен по итогам  студенческой  научно-практической  конференции. Инициатор   конференции    УМО.

Большинство докладов имеет практическую направленность и возможность  использования  содержащихся  в них материалов  в учебном процессе и дальнейшей исследовательской деятельности.

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